Development Engineering Inc. (DEI) develops commercial-scale vertical lime kilns. DEI begins development in early combustion retort technology using lime kiln technology as preliminary design basis.
DEI signs a 10-year lease for the Anvil Points Oil Shale Research Facility (Colorado, USA) from the U.S. Department of Interior and begins Paraho® Oil Shale Project. The Anvil Points property included substantial federal oil shale reserves. Paraho® Development Corp (PDC) is formed. DEI becomes wholly owned by PDC and develops Paraho® retorting technology as an advancement of prior work. Two plants are planned for construction: Paraho® Pilot Plant and Paraho® Semi-Works Plant. The project was privately funded by a consortium of 17 large oil and gas, mining, and engineering companies.
The Paraho® Pilot Plant is commissioned with a shale rate of 2250 lb/hr [1000 kg/hr].
The Paraho® Semi-Works Plant is commissioned with a shale rate or 24000 lb/hr [10890 kg/hr].
Paraho® produces 100,000 barrels of crude shale oil in support of U.S. Navy program to assess the suitability of shale-derived fuels for military use. This program led to revised U.S. Department of Defense procurement specifications allowing shale oil derived jet and diesel fuels for use by all of the defense services.
Anvil Points facility’s 10-year lease agreement expires. The Paraho® Pilot and Semi-Works Plants are decommissioned.
The Paraho® Pilot Plant is dismantled and relocated to private land near the Anvil Points facility. Pilot testing programs re-commence and limited development work continues. The Paraho® Semi-Works plant is permanently dismantled.
The Paraho® Pilot Plant is operated over extended runs for the production of Shale Oil Modified Asphalt (SOMAT) – an asphalt binder derived from shale oil. The Pilot Plant achieved average availability of over 95%, including continuous run for over one year.
The Paraho® Pilot Plant was used to conduct extensive pilot plant trials for Queensland Energy Resources (QER). Pilot Plant processed 8000 metric tonnes of Australian oil shale, yielding about 4000 barrels of shale oil. Paraho® retort performance was tested in both Combustion and Heated modes with positive results. QER selected Paraho II™ technology for its proposed commercial development program.
Shale Tech International Partners is founded and obtains the rights to the Paraho® technology and through its affiliate, Shale Tech International Services LLC, operates the Paraho® Pilot Plant and laboratory facilities.
Shale Tech International Services LLC performs engineering consulting services for QER for the design and construction of a Technology Demonstration Plant (TDP), in Gladstone, Australia. The Technology Demonstration Plant features the Paraho II™ technology and includes mining, material handling, fines briquetting, shale drying, retorting, oil recovery, oil upgrading, gas cleaning, and sour water stripping. The purpose of the plant was to demonstrate to the Queensland government, stakeholders and other NGOs that the Paraho II™ technology can be used to convert Australian oil shales into a range of liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuels while doing so in an environmentally and socially responsible manner. The TDP also generated process data for use in designing a commercial demonstration plant.